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2005年11月翻译考试英语初级笔译实务真题及答案

   2017-07-24   【

2005年11月翻译考试英语初级笔译实务真题及答案

 试题部分:

  Section 1: English-Chinese Translation (英译汉) (60 points)

  Translate the following passage into Chinese. The time for this section is 120 minutes.

  The Gap between Rich and Poor Widened in U.S. Capital

  Washington D.C. ranks first among the 40 cities with the widest gap between the poor and the rich, according to a recent report released by the D.C. Fiscal Policy Institute on July 22nd. The top 20 percent of households in D.C. have an average yearly income of $186,830, 31 times that of the bottom 20 percent, which earns only $6,126 per year. The income gap is also big in Atlanta and Miami, but the difference is not as pronounced.

  The report also indicates that the widening gap occurred mainly during the 1990s. Over the last decade, the average income of the top 20 percent of households has grown 36 percent, while the average income of the bottom 20 percent has only risen 3 percent.

  "I believe the concentration of the middle- to high-income families in the D.C. area will continue, therefore, the income gap between rich and poor will be hard to bridge," David Garrison told the Washington Observer. Garrison is a senior researcher with the Brookings Institution, specializing in the study of the social and economic policies in the greater Washington D.C. area.

  The report attributed the persistent income gap in Washington to the area's special job opportunities, which attract high-income households. Especially since the federal government is based in Washington D.C., Government agencies and other government related businesses such as lobbying firms and government contractors constantly offer high-paying jobs, which contribute to the trend of increasing high-income households in the D.C. area. For example, a single young professional working in a law firm in D.C. can earn as much as $100,000 in his or her first year out of law school.

  "In addition, high-quality housing available in Washington D.C. is one of the main reasons why high-income families choose to live here, while middle and low-income families, if they can afford it, choose to move out of Washington D.C. to the Virginia and Maryland suburbs so that their kids can go to better schools," stated Garrison.

  "As rich families continue to move into D.C. and middle and low-income families are moving out, the poorest families are left with nowhere to move, or cannot afford to move. This creates the situation we face now: a huge income gap between the rich and poor."

  The Washington D.C. area to which Garrison refers is the District of Columbia city itself, not including the greater Washington metro area. "The greater Washington metro area has a large population of about 5 million, but the low-income households are often concentrated in D.C. proper," Garrison explained.

  Tony Blalock, the spokesperson for Mayor Anthony Williams, said resignedly, "No matter what we seem to do to bring investment into the District, a certain population is not able to access the unique employment opportunities there. The gap between the rich and poor is the product of complex forces, and won't be fixed overnight."

  Garrison believes that the D.C. government should attract high-income families. By doing so, the District's tax base can grow, which in turn can help improve D.C.'s infrastructure. "But in the meantime, the District government should also take into consideration the rights of the poor, set up good schools for them, and provide sound social welfare. All these measures can alleviate the dire situation caused by income disparity. "

  Garrison, however, is not optimistic about the possibility of closing the gap between the rich and poor. He is particularly doubtful that current economic progress will be able to help out the poor. "Bush's tax-cut plan did bring about this wave of economic recovery, and the working professionals and rich did benefit from it. It is unfair to say that the plan did not help the poor at all„ it just didn't benefit them as much as it did the rich, " Garrison said. "The working class in America, those who do the simplest work, get paid the least, and dutifully pay their taxes, has not benefited from Bush's tax-cut plan much."

  Garrison concludes, "A lot of cities in America did not enjoy the positive impact of the economic recovery. Washington D.C., on the other hand, has always been sheltered by the federal government. The wide gap between rich and poor in the District, therefore, deserves more in-depth study and exploration."

  Section 2: Chinese-English Translation (汉译英) (40 points)

  Translate the following passage into English. The time for this section is 60 minutes.

  25年来,中国坚定不移地推进改革开放,社会主义市场经济体制初步建立,开放型经济已经形成,社会生产力和综合国力不断增强,各项社会事业全面发展,人民生活总体上实现了由温饱到小康的历史性跨越。从1978年至2003年的25年间,中国经济年均增长9.4%。25年前,中国年国内生产总值为1473亿美元,去年已达到14000多亿美元。25年前,中国年进出口贸易总额为206亿美元,去年已达到8512亿美元。25年前,中国外汇储备为1.67亿美元,去年已达到4033亿美元。目前,中国经济总量居世界第六,进出口贸易总额居世界第四。中国之所以能够发生这样巨大的变化,最关键的原因是我们始终坚持走中国特色社会主义道路,始终坚持改革开放,激发了全体人民的积极性、主动性、创造性。

  中国虽然取得了很大的发展成就,但中国人口多,底子薄,生产力不发达,发展很不平衡,生态环境、自然资源与经济社会发展的矛盾比较突出。虽然中国人均国内生产总值已经突破1000美元,但仍排在世界一百位以后。中国要实现现代化,使全体人民都过上富裕生活,还需要进行长期不懈的艰苦奋斗。

  我们已经明确了本世纪头20年的奋斗目标,这就是全面建设惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会,到2020年实现国内生产总值比2000年翻两番,达到4万亿美元,人均国内生产总值达到3000美元,使经济更加发展、民主更加健全、科教更加进步、文化更加繁荣、社会更加和谐、人民生活更加殷实。

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