There are two factors which determine an individual's intelligence. The first is the sort of brain he is born with. Human brains differ considerably, some being more capable than others. But no matter how good a brain he has to begin with, an individual will have a low order of intelligence unless he has opportunities to learn. So the second factor is what happens to the individual - the sort of environment in which he is reared. If an individual is handicapped envionmentally, it is likely that his brain will fail to develop and he will never attain the level of intelligence of which he is capable.
The importance of environment in determining an individual's intellingence can be demonstrated by the case history of the identical twins, Peter and Mark X. Being identical, the twins had identical brains at birth, and their growth processes were the same. When the twins were three months old, their parents died, and they were placed in separate foster homes. Peter was reated by parents of low intelligence in an isolatedcommunity with poor educational pooprtunities. Mark was reared inthe home of well-to-do parents who had been to college. He was read to as a child, sent to good schools, and given every opportunity to be stimulated intellectually. This enviromental difference continued until the twins were in their late teens, when they were giben tesets to measure their intelligence. Mark's I. Q. was 125, twenty-five points higher than the average and fully forty points higher than his identical brother. Given equal opportunities, the twins, having identical brains, would have tested at roughly the same level.
1. This selection can best be titled ________.
a. Measuring Your Intelligence
b. Intelligence and Environment
c. The Case of Peter and Mark
d. How the brain Influences Intelligence
2. The beststatement of the main idea of this passage is that ________.
a. human brains differ considerably
b. the brain a person is born with is improtant in determining his intelligence
c. environment is crucial in determining a person's intelligence
d. persons having identical brains will have roughly the same intelligence
3. According to the passage, the average I. Q. is ________.
4. The case history of the twins appears to support the conclusion that ________.
a. individual with identical brains seldom test at same level
b. an individual's intelligence is determined only by his enviroment
c. lack of opportunity blocks the growth of intelligence
d. changes of enviroment produce changes in the structure of the brain
5. This passage suggests that an individual 's I. Q. ________.
a. can be predicted at birth
b. stays the same throuthout his life
c. can be increased by education
d. is determined by his childhood