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2018年下半年公共英语一级讲义:形容词、副词

金沙国际   2018-04-10   【

  【形容词,副词】

  形容词及其用法

  形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。

  1) 直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的。

  2) 叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。

  (错) He is an ill man. (对) The man is ill.

  (错) She is an afraid girl.  (对) The girl is afraid.

  这类词还有:well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。

  3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如:something nice

  用形容词表示类别和整体

  1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。如:the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry

  The poor are losing hope.

  2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。

  the British,the English,the French,the Chinese.

  The English have wonderful sense of humor.

  以-ly结尾的形容词

  1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively, ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。

  改错:(错) She sang lovely. (错) He spoke to me very friendly.

  (对) Her singing was lovely. (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

  2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。

  daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early

  The Times is a daily paper. The Times is published daily.

  多个形容词修饰名词的顺序

  多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:

  限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --出处--材料性质,类别--名词

  a small round table   a tall gray building

  a dirty old brown shirt   a famous German medical school

  an expensive Japanese sports car

  worth 的用法

  worth,worthy,worth-while都为adj. 意为"值得"。

  1. worth:be worth + n.  当名词为金钱时,表示"…… 值得……"

  be worth doing sth. "……某事值得被做"

  The question is not worth discussing again and again.

  2. worthy:be worthy of +n. 当名词为抽象名词时表示"……值得……"

  be worthy to be done "某事值得被做"

  The question is not worthy to be discussed againand again.

  3. worth-while:be worth-while to do sth  "值得做某事"

  worth while:It is worth while doing sth

  It is worth while sb to do sth.

  典型例题

  It is not ____ to discuss the question again and again.

  A.worth B.worthy C.worth-while D.worth while

  答案C. 由worth的用法可知,此句只适合词组be worth-while to do sth.。副词及其基本用法

  副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其它结构。

  一、副词的位置:

  1) 在动词之前。

  2) 在be动词、助动词之后。

  3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。

  注意:

  a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。

  We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.

  b. 方式副词well,badly糟、坏,hard等只放在句尾。

  He speaks English well.

  副词的排列顺序:

  1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。

  2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。

  Please write slowly and carefully.

  3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。

  注意:副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。

  改错:(错) I very like English. (对) I like English very much.

  注意:副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。

  I don't know him well enough.

  There is enough food for everyone to eat.

  There is food enough for everyone to eat

  兼有两种形式的副词

  1) close与closely

  close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"

  He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely.

  2) late 与lately

  late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"

  You have come too late. What have you been doing lately?

  3) deep与deeply

  deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"

  He pushed the stick deep into the mud.

  Even father was deeply moved by the film.

  4) high与highly

  high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much

  The plane was flying high.  I think highly of your opinion.

  5) wide与widely

  wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"

  He opened the door wide.  English is widely used in the world.

  6) free与freely

  free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"

  You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.

  You may speak freely; say what you like.

  形容词和副词的比较等级

  比较等级分为原级、比较级和最高级。

  1.原级用法

  ① 表示被比较双方在某一方面相等或相同时, 用as + adj / adv + as结构, 表示“…和…一样” 。如:

  a. Xiao Li is as tall as his sister.

  b. It is as cold today as it was yesterday.

  c. There are as many seats in this hall as in that hall.

  ② 表示被比较双方在某一方面不相等或不同时, 用not as / so + adj / adv + as, 表示“…和…不一样”

  a. Xiao Li is not as / so tall as his brother.

  b. It is not so / as cold today as yesterday.

  c. There are not so / as many seats in this hall as in that hall.

  2.比较级的用法

  ① 对方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级 + than”的结构表示。如: This picture is more beautiful than that one.

  ② 表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示。

  如: This room is less beautiful than that one.

  ③ 表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加表示程度的状语,如even、a lot、a bit、a little、still、much、far、yet、by fay等修饰。如: He works even harder than before.

  注意:英语的比较级前如无even、still或yet等时,译成汉语时可用“较”或“…一些”或不译出,一般不可有“更”。如:

  She is better than she was yesterday.   Please come earlier tomorrow.

  另注意:by far通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面,如在前面,应在二者中间加“the”。如:

  He is taller by far than his brother.

  He is by far the taller of the two brothers.

  ④ 表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语),the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语)”的结构(意为“越……越……”)。如:

  The harder he works, the happier he feels.

  ⑤ 不与其他事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较级 + and + 比较级”的结构。如:

  The weather is getting colder and colder.

  The girl becomes more and more beautiful.

  ⑥ 某些以-ior结尾的形容词进行比较时,用to代替than。这些词有inferior(劣等的,次的)、superior(较好的,优于……)、junior(资历较浅的)、senior(资格较老的)、prior(在……之前)等。

  He is superior to Mr. Zhang in chemistry.

  ⑦ 在比较从句中为了避免重复,我们通常用that(those)、one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that指物,one既可指人又可指物。that可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,而one只能代替可数名词。

  The book on the table is more interesting than that(或the one)on the desk.

  A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood.

  ⑧ 倍数表达法。

  (A)A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.

  如:The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one.

  (B)A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B.

  如:Asia is four times as large as Europe.

  (C)A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B.

  如:Your school is three times bigger than ours.

  用times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用twice或double.

  3.最高级的用法

  ①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the + 最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。如:

  Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three.

  He works(the)hardest in his class.

  ②最高级可被序数词以及much、by far、nearly、almost 、by no means、not quite、not really、nothing like等词语所修饰。如:

  This hat is by far / much / nearly / almost / not nearly / by no means / not quite / nothing like the biggest.

  How much did the second most expensive hat cost?

  ③表示“最高程度”的形容词,如excellent、extreme、perfect等,没有最高级,也不能用比较级。

  ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。如:

  He is the tallest(boy)in his class.

  ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。如:

  Of all the boys he came(the)earliest.

  as + 形容词或副词原级 + as

  1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。

  He cannot run so/as fast as you.

  2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。

  as +形容词+ a +单数名词

  as + many/much +名词

  This is as good an example as the other is.

  I can carry as much paper as you can..

  3)用表示倍数的词或其它程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。

  This room is twice as big as that one.

  Your room is the same size as mine.

  4) 倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ then + of

  This bridge is three times as long as that one.

  This bridge is three times the length of that one.

  Your room is twice as large as mine.

  Your room is twice the size of mine.

  the + 最高级 + 比较范围

  1) The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world.

  形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。

  形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。

  It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem.

  注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。

  (错)Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.

  (对)Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

  2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost

  This hat is nearly/almost the biggest.

  注意:  a. very可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。

  This is the very best.

  This is much the best.

  b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。

  Africa is the second largest continent.

  3) 句型转换:

  Mike is the most intelligent in his class.

  Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

  4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构表示最高级含义。

  Nothing is so easy as this.=Nothing is easier than this.

  =This is the easiest thing.

  比较级形容词或副词 + than

  You are taller than I.

  They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine.

  注意:

  1)要避免重复使用比较级。

  (错) He is more cleverer than his brother.

  (对) He is more clever than his brother.  (对) He is clever than his brother.

  2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。

  (错) China is larger that any country in Asia.

  (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.

  3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。

  The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.

  It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

  4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。

  比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia?

  Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?

  She is taller than her two sisters.

  She is the taller of the two sisters.

  可修饰比较级的词

  1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等

  2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

  3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。

  和more有关的词组

  1) the more… the more… 越……就越……

  The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make.

  2) more B than A 与其说A不如说B

  less A than B

  He is more lazy than slow at his work.= He is less slow than lazy at his work.

  3) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多

  The officials could see no more than the Emperor.

  no less… than… 与……一样……

  He is no less diligent than you.

  4) more than 不只是,非常

  She is more than kind to us all.

  many, old 和 far

  1) 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词

  many more +可数名词复数

  2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。

  My elder brother is an engineer.

  Mary is the eldest of the three sisters.

  3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。

  在美语中,father 表示距离,further表示进一步。

  I have nothing further to say.

纠错评论责编:Eve
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